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2018年自考《英语翻译》试题及答案

2019-08-12 15:47:18   来源:黑龙江自考网    点击:   作者:李老师   
  I.Fill in the blanks in the following sentences:(20%)

  1/ “汉语具有意美、________、________三大优点。”(鲁迅《汉文学史纲要》第一篇《自文学至文章》,然而,英语与汉语相比,前者为拼音文字,而后者为表意文字。英语所具有的“音美”显然有别于汉语。汉语一个字代表一个音节,而汉语音节结构形式的一个突出的审美特征是双声叠韵。

  2/ “译笔出原著头地”,或曰青出于蓝的现象除归结为译者“驱使本国文字”的“功夫”之外,另有一点似不可忽视,即汉语本身是“智慧的语言”、“________”(鲁道夫·弗莱齐语)。汉语的种种________(诸如四字结构、意合parataxis能力、形式齐整、音律跃耳、辞格丰富、意境性强等等)如漫漫译途上的一盏指路明灯,又如茫茫译林中的奔泉与鸟鸣,令译者走出“柳暗”,令译者呈现“光明”。

  3/ 联想(association)的理论与实践同样适用于英汉翻译。放眼译苑,不少译者未动译笔,已败于“理解”门槛之外,其理解或捉襟见拙,或张冠李戴,或自相矛盾;另一些译者虽理解无误,却译笔呆滞枯暗,表达或________,或不问原文,或淡而无味,缘由之一恐怕盖与“联想”有涉。________,为有源头活水来。我门把玩译林佳句时,常发出这样的慨叹:文思如涌,联想驰骋,方能译笔有神。

  4/ 从语源(Etymology)观察,英汉相距甚远。虽然英汉同属屈折变化(inflections) 较少的分析性语言(analytical language),也不属综合型语言(synthetic language),但是,英语与汉语毕竟各自隶属不同语系,前者属________(Indo-European language),后者属汉藏语系(________)。

  5/ 词典之类的参考书对译者来说都________。只有________,包括最广泛的语言–文化背景,才能说明含义。

  ----(英)乔治• 斯坦纳

  6/ 此种观点,甚至“殃及”译界:科技翻译讲抽象思维,而文学翻译才须讲形象思维。实际情况则是:任何一类翻译,都需要________。缺乏形象思维的翻译,其译文或舛误叠现,或生硬呆板,或形容枯槁,或________。

  7/ 灵感思维并不缥缈,更不遥远!君不见,那么令人失声叫绝的译文,就或明或暗地闪现灵感思维的光泽。译者的灵感思维从天而降,他会走笔如神,左右逢源,心中荡漾________;而诵读这样的译文,则完全可能令读者陶醉字里,________!潜心对原文和译文作对照阅读时,你会感受心灵的震撼,“嚯”地起身,大呼“天才译文!”

  8/ 据笔者陋见,经受文化冲击,首先指置身于异族文化或生活方式的人,其次,大概就数“________”了。因为,语言毕竟或多或少是一种社会和文化的载体。而翻译则是一种典型的________。

  9/ 汉语自有汉语之美。汉语不注重对客观现实作符合逻辑的形式的描摹,不执著于形式结构的规范。汉语是一种时现“________”(femininity)的语言。汉语的魅力系于她的流散和疏放,系于她的________。

  10/ 从翻译美学审视,“雅”,即“________”,即原文或译文的________。

  II.Passage Translation:(30%)

  1/ The true artist lets himself go. He is natural. He swims easily in the stream of his own temperament. He listens to himself. He respects himself.

  He comes into the light of every-day like a great leviathan of the deep, breaking the smooth surface of accepted things, gay, serious, sportive. His appetite for life is enormous. He enters eagerly into the life of man, all men. He becomes all men in himself.

  2/ Also, there are many ways of opening doors. There is the cheery push of elbow with which the waiter shoves open the kitchen door when he bears in your tray of supper. There is the suspicious and tentative withdrawal of a door before the unhappy book agent or peddler. There is the genteel and carefully modulated recession with which footmen swing wide the oaken barriers of the great. There is the sympathetic and awful silence of the dentist’s maid who opens the door into the operating room and, without speaking, implies that the doctor is ready for you. There is the brisk cataclysmic opening of a door when the nurse comes in, very early in the morning — “It’s a boy!”

  III.Article Translation:(50%)

  1/ Over Time, People 'Catch Mood' of Friends, Lovers / By Dana Frisch

  2/ Six months later, the 38 couples that were still together repeated the experiment. The couples maintained distinct personalities, but they were more closely attuned emotionally than they had been at the start of the study, the researchers found.

  3/ Although couples' emotions converged over time, similar emotions might have drawn them together in the first place. Couples that stayed together during the study were more emotionally similar than couples that broke up, the researchers point out.

  4/ Anderson's team also found that the partner who had less power in the relationship did most of the changing in terms of emotions.

  5/ In other experiments, which involved college students who lived together in dormitories, the researchers found that roommates tended to have more similar emotional responses toward the end of the school year. The researchers gauged emotion by having students watch film clips that tend to elicit laughs or tears.

  6/ Roommates whose emotions converged the most during the school year tended to become closer friends than roommates whose emotions did not become as similar, according to the report.

  7/ The study also found that the roommate who had a lower social status in the dormitory tended to change more than popular roommates.

  8/ Anderson said these results show that "people's emotional responses to events are not completely fixed and rigid."

  9/ According to the Illinois researcher, emotional similarity could be helpful in assembling the most productive corporate team, and might be an important consideration when searching for love or friendships.

  1/ Type A People May Have Lower Quality of Life: Study / By Charnicia E. Huggins

  2/ He and Kashfian found that people who reported the highest levels of anger, cynicism, and hostility, in particular, in their response to the hypothetical scenarios also perceived their quality of life as much lower than their peers.

  3/ "In other words, the more hostility somebody indicated on the hostility questionnaires the lower their quality of life," Keith said.

  4/ The study participants' quality of life was rated according to their responses to a questionnaire that measured their self-reported satisfaction; competence and productivity; personal empowerment and independence; and social belonging and community integration.

  5/ Despite the findings, the researchers note that they did not prove that the individual's type A behavior was responsible for a reduction in quality of life. They did not study whether type A behavior results in a reduced quality of life or vice versa.

  6/ "It's also conceivable that something else makes people hostile and reduces their quality of life," Keith said.

  7/ Various researchers have suggested that type A behavior can be changed, Keith and Kashfian write in a statement, "and the possibility exists that such change might have implications for quality of life."

  8/ It may not be straightforward to change type A behavior, but it is "doable," Keith said. If the type A personality is thought of in terms of its behavioral characteristics rather than something internal, behavior modification and health management techniques can change that behavior in much the same way as a person changes their smoking behavior, the researcher explained.

  参考答案

  I.Fill in the blanks in the following sentences:(20%)

  音美 / 形美/ 世界上最成熟的语言 / 优势 / 诘屈聱牙 / 问渠哪得清如许 / 印欧语系 / Sino-Tibetan language / 没有多大用处/ 上下文 / 形象思维 / 味同嚼蜡/ 无限快意 / 忘情行间 / 译匠/ intercultural activity / 阴柔之美 / 暗示力和意境性 / 美 / 美学价值

  II.Passage Translation:(30%)

  1/ 真正的艺术家是狂放不羁的。他自由自在,悠然自得地在自己个性的川流中畅游。他倾自我,尊重自我。

  他以深海巨鲸的姿态,浮现在日常生活的阳光下,打破人们习以为常的平静生活的洋面,轻松愉快、严肃认真、嬉笑自若。他酷爱生活,拥抱生活。他渴望与各种人物同命运,共呼吸。他成了所有人的化身。

  2/ 同样,开门方式也多种多样。快乐的服务员会用肘部顶开厨房门,手里的托盘上正放着你的晚餐。疑神疑鬼,探头探脑的书商和小贩悻悻然地退出门去。后退的男仆走着优雅的小碎步,为贵宾缓缓打开栎木大门。充满同情和一声不响的牙医助手打开通向手术室的门,无言地向你表示医生正在等你。一大早,兴奋的护士“哗”地一下打开门,走进来说“生了个男孩!”

  III.Article Translation:(50%)

  1/ Over Time, People 'Catch Mood' of Friends, Lovers /随着时间的过去,人们与友人、情侣情绪趋同

  2/ 半年之后,仍在一起的38对夫妇重复了实验。研究人员发现,他们保持着鲜明的个性,但是,他们比在研究开始时在情绪协调方面变得更加紧密。

  3/ 尽管随时间推移,夫妇情绪趋同,但是,首先是相似的情绪将他们撮合在一起。在研究过程中能守望一处的夫妇比各奔东西的夫妇在情感上更加相似。研究人员指出。

  4/ Anderson的研究小组还发现,在婚姻关系中力量较弱的伙伴在情绪方面产生的变化最大。

  5/ 在其他实验,比如对共同生活在寝室里大学生的实验中,研究人员发现,室友在一个学年快要结束时,会具有更多的情绪方面的反应。研究人员通过让学生观看那些引人发笑或是催人泪下的电影片段来做情绪的测定。

  6/ 根据此报告,在这一学年之中情绪趋同最多的室友,比起没有情绪趋同的室友来,往往成为更加亲近的朋友。

  7/ 研究还发现,在寝室中,社会地位较为低下的室友往往变得比那些广受欢迎的室友更大。

  8/ Anderson说,这些结果显示“人们对一些事件的情绪上的反应并非完全固定的,僵化的。”

  9/ 根据伊利诺斯州的研究,情绪类似能有助于组合最富生产力的集体团队,也可能是寻求爱情和友情的一个重要的考虑因素。

  1/ Type A People May Have Lower Quality of Life: Study /研究发现:A型个性者的生活质量可能较低

  2/ 他和Kashfian发现,那些报告自己特别对那些假设情景的反应中具有最高程度的愤怒、讥嘲以及敌意,也察觉到自己的生活质量比他们的同类人要低得多。

  3/ “换言之,那些对测试敌意的问卷上的情景显示出的敌意越多,那么,他们的生活质量也就越低。” Keith说。

  4/ 这项研究的参与者的生活质量的排定的根据是他们对问卷所作的反应。问卷测量了他们自报的满意程度、能力、生产力、个人权力和独立性、社会亲密可靠的关系、以及与公众的融合性。

  5/ 尽管有以上的发现,但是研究人员仍然指出,他们并没有证明个人的A型行为对其生活质量的影响应该负责。他们没有研究A型行为是否导致了生活质量的下降,或是相反。

  6/ “也可以想见,别的东西使人们产生敌意,并影响了他们的生活质量。” Keith说。

  7/ 不同的研究人员已经指出,A型行为可以改变。Keith和Kashfian在一篇陈述中写道,“这样的改变可能对生活质量存在影响的可能性是存在的。”

  8/ 要想改变A型的行为并非易事,但是,那又是“可做的”Keith说。假如A型个性被认为是行为的特征,而非心理的表现,那么,行为修正,健康管理技术就能够改变那种行为,就像一个人能够改变吸烟行为那样。研究人员解释道。

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